A source of income and employment at the end of the 19th century, this tourism brought groups of Americans and Europeans to Témiscamingue. Thereafter, large estates were granted to private clubs, without regard for the traditional Indigenous hunting territories, forcing them to leave their land or become guides for these new privileged occupants, since they know the territory intimately. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were about twenty of these private clubs in the region. The most beautiful territories were then reserved for the wealthy, who allowed access only to their members. These private clubs were disbanded from 1977 onwards.