Settlement colonization deprived the Anicinabek access to a very important part of their territory. The land taken by settlers became private property and no compensation was offered, contrary to what was indicated in the Royal Proclamation of 1763. No treaties were signed (except for Treaty No. 9 for the Abitibiwinnik; a treaty considered problematic). The lands transferred to the settlers were all territories where traditional activities could no longer be carried out.